Secondary Movements of Nigerian Migrant Women in Italy

Many Nigerian women migrate to Europe due to poor economic or social circumstances back home.  After initially arriving in Italy, they often travel further to Germany, where they apply for Asylum, to later return again back to Italy. The patterns of secondary movement have now been examined by Piemonte Immigrazione in Italy.

Women who return from Germany to Italy can be divided into three categories. Either, the women are returned back by Germany, due to the Dublin regulation; or they return due to failed asylum applications, or they move back to renew their Italian residence permits. Nigerian women who return to Italy from Germany or other European countries are extremely vulnerable due to their situation, their  previous experiences of trafficking, violence and abuse, and poor socio-economic conditions.

Many of them return pregnant or with children who were born in Germany. The high number of children of Nigerian women who engaged in the secondary movement to Germany could be an indicator of pregnancy as a form of exploitation according to the paper. There is a possibility that the increased welfare benefits provided by the German state are used as a form to repay trafficking debts or finance third parties by the traffickers.

The findings of the report show how important it is to advocate for policy reforms that enhance the protection of trafficked persons and reduce the vulnerabilities associated with secondary movements. See here the research report.